More than two million Muslims gathered at Mount Arafat on Monday for a vigil to atone for their sins and ask God's forgiveness as the annual Hajj pilgrimage in Saudi Arabia reached its climax.
Pilgrims clad in white robes signifying a state of purity spent the night in an encampment around the hill where Islam holds that God tested Abraham's faith by commanding him to sacrifice his son Ismail and Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) gave his last sermon.
Worshippers praying in the nearby Mina area ascended in buses or on foot from before dawn as security forces directed traffic and helicopters and surveillance drones hovered overhead, reports Reuters.
Some pilgrims carried umbrellas to protect themselves from the sun as temperatures surpassed 40 degrees Celsius (104 degrees Fahrenheit) after an evening of thunderstorms and high winds. Men and women from 165 countries gathered side by side, while soldiers handed out bottled water and some people snapped selfies.
Pakistani pilgrim Mohamed Forqan, 30, said it was a great day to be a Muslim. "Here in Arafat we feel that we are born today asking Allah to forgive our sins," he said.
Hilal Issa, 70, from Algeria, said he was praying for God to pardon all Muslims and save the Arab world from its afflictions.
Saudi Arabia has said more than 2.3 million pilgrims, mostly from outside Saudi Arabia, have arrived for the five-day ritual, a religious duty once in a lifetime for every able-bodied Muslim who can afford the journey.
The pilgrims will spend the day on Mount Arafat. By sunset they will move to the rocky plain of Muzdalifa to gather pebbles to throw at stone columns symbolising the devil at another location called Jamarat on Tuesday, which marks the first day of Eid al-Azha, or the feast of sacrifice.
A new kiswa, the cloth embroidered with verses from the Quran, was placed over the Kaaba in Mecca's Grand Mosque late on Sunday. Pilgrims will return to pray there at the end of Hajj.
In a midday sermon, senior Saudi cleric Sheikh Hussein bin Abdulaziz Al al-Sheikh also urged pilgrims to come together with their co-religionists but cautioned: "Hajj is not a place for slogans and parties."
Saudi Arabia stakes its reputation on its guardianship of Islam's holiest sites - Mecca and Medina - and organising the pilgrimage.
The world's largest annual gathering of Muslims has in the past seen stampedes, fires and riots, with authorities sometimes struggling to respond.
A crush in 2015 killed nearly 800 pilgrims, according to Riyadh, although counts by countries of repatriated bodies showed over 2,000 may have died, more than 400 of them Iranians.
Officials say they have taken all necessary precautions this year, with tens of thousands of security forces and health workers on hand to maintain safety and provide first aid.
Pilgrimage is also the backbone of a plan to expand tourism under a drive to diversify the kingdom's economy away from oil.
The Hajj and year-round umrah generate billions of dollars in revenue from worshippers' lodging, transport, fees and gifts.
Officials aim to increase the number of umrah and Hajj pilgrims to 15 million and 5 million respectively by 2020, and hope to double the umrah number again to 30 million by 2030.